Sunday, May 24, 2020
What can be more familiar than good old Thanksgiving Day, probably the most traditional of all holidays? Yet the holiday we celebrate nowadays on the fourth Thursday of November is very different from what it was intended as originally. And, frankly speaking, it is pretty hard to define what exactly is its real origin and how far back one has to go to uncover it. The matter is, almost all cultures, especially those with agricultural roots, have a kind of Thanksgiving day, usually celebrated in Autumn Ã¢â¬â people give thanks to whatever higher powers they believe in for the harvest. However, the holiday most people think about when they hear about the Thanksgiving day is much younger Ã¢â¬â most sources believe that it originates from 1621 celebration in the colony of Plymouth, founded by the Pilgrims who came to America on Mayflower. They had a lot to thank for Ã¢â¬â after arriving to the New World in late autumn they barely survived the following winter and were stranded far away from home, in a un unknown place with hostile nature and climate. However, they received help from natives, who taught them how to cultivate and prepare local plants Ã¢â¬â and the next autumn their toils were rewarded with unexpectedly bountiful harvest. The Pilgrims decided that such good luck called for a celebration, and thus the first Thanksgiving Day took place. In order to commemorate the help they received from natives, they invited about a hundred of them to this feast. However, at the time Thanksgiving day didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a stable date and wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even considered to be an annual celebration Ã¢â¬â in later years it was celebrated occasionally, but not every year. In addition to that, different towns and states had their own ideas of when it is supposed to be celebrated, which led to even more confusion. Thanksgiving Day turned into an important national holiday resembling what it is today only after the War for Independence Ã¢â¬â George Washington offered it as a day of country-wide thanksgiving and prayer. However, even after that there was no fixed date for the holiday Ã¢â¬â current tradition of celebrating it on the fourth Thursday of November is quite a young one Ã¢â¬â it dates back only to 1941. During its almost 400-year history, Thanksgiving Day underwent many changes and alterations. It started out as a purely religious festival, aimed at praising God for good harvest and general well-being: all family members took time to think about things they were grateful for and said their thanks out loud. However, in the course of time its nature changed, and today it is a purely secular holiday associated with family values and national spirit. It is one of the few days when an entire family is supposed to get together in the house of its oldest generation, thus reinforcing the blood ties between them and reminding that all of them should stick together and no matter how different they are there is still a lot of things they have in common. At its time of origin, American culture was a purely agricultural one, and thus Thanksgiving Day had an enormous symbolic and emotional meaning Ã¢â¬â after a year of hard work people finally got the results of their efforts and had a very good reason for festivities. Today, in modern urban America, Thanksgiving Day remains a beautiful tradition, but has lost most of its emotional impact. We are no longer tied to natural rhythms and are less dependent on how good our current harvest is Ã¢â¬â a lot of people have no idea about harvests and suchlike at all. But we still have a lot to thank for.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
When I was young, and knew little about how the world worked, I was frightened by the ideas of monsters in my closet or dolls that come to life while you are asleep. Now that I am older, I have more experience living on Earth, and I know what to expect from it. Likewise, horror genre has grown to create an alternate reality in which one can not assume that what we come to expect of the real world applies in a fictional one: Ã¢â¬Å"[The horror genre] must posit an unnatural threat that is outside the realm of normalcy, reality, or historyÃ¢â¬ ¦[with] sympathetic and vulnerable potential victimsÃ¢â¬ (Sipos).As society has grown to expect certain things from a horror film over the years, the horror genre has evolved to counteract that growth in order to provide the audience with the one thing that remains constant in the horror genre, the feeling of fear. The feeling of fear is the one aspect of the genre that defines a horror film: Ã¢â¬Å"horror is one of the rare genres that are de fined not primarily by period or formal idiosyncrasies, but by the effect they produce in the audience...They all aim at the bodily response of their audienceÃ¢â¬ (Hantke). Throughout the history of the horror genre, parts of the mythology, conventions, and iconography, of the genre that were used to produce the desired response of an audience have changed drastically along with the various cultural changes that occurred during the genreÃ¢â¬â¢s history as evidenced by the contrasting and comparable aspects of the horror films,Show MoreRelatedParadox Of Horror Movies951 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Horror Paradox Horror movies have been classified as the type of genre that heavily exploits the use of violence and grisly images to appeal to different audiences. In fact, one of the main reasons that horror movies are still celebrated is because of a term, discovered by behavioral researchers, called the Ã¢â¬Å"horror paradoxÃ¢â¬ . Joanne Cantor, the director of the Center for Communication Research at University of Wisconsin, states that Ã¢â¬Å"Since it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t require logic to appreciate, audiences watchRead MoreCompare And Contrast The Raven And The Nightmare Before Christmas1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescommon between most horror films and texts? They all use similar types of codes and conventions. These codes and conventions differ between genre and can be easily identified. These also reflect the values of the audience they are intended for. The 1993 stop-motion animated film, Ã¢â¬ËThe Nightmare Before ChristmasÃ¢â¬â¢, directed by Henry Selick, and the 1845 poem, Ã¢â¬ËThe Rav enÃ¢â¬â¢, written by Edgar Allan Poe, are both a part of the horror genre, as they follow the codes and conventions of that genre. They use similarRead MoreHorror Films By Edgar Allen Poe, Bram Stoker And Marry Shelly1069 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmost popular film genres today: Horror. Beginning roughly 100 years ago, early horror films were based off of the writings of famous Gothic writers such as Edgar Allen Poe, Bram Stoker and Marry Shelly. However, it was later when the German Expressionism in the form of film dominated the industry, horror films started to develop stronger and stronger. Horror movies are film genre, which typically relates to two patterns as supernatural, massacre, violence and zombies. Each movie genre has different specialRead MoreThe Exorcist Defines the Horror Genre Essay1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe horror genre has held a prominent position in culture for most of history. Beginning in folklore, used as a device to scare children into good behaviors (e.g . The Grimm BrotherÃ¢â¬â¢s Fairy Tales), horror has integrated its way into the 21st century through film, and in recent years even video games. Yearly, primarily during the fall when the leaves start to brown and the natural eerie sense of fear fills the air around Halloween, the film industry likes to fill in the holes between its major grossingRead MorePsychological Horror : The Mind As The Monster Of The Story1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is one horror that uses the human mind as the monster of the story? Psychological horror uses their psyche as the antagonist to invoke fear in the character as well as the reader. Psychological horror is a sub-genre of horror in literature. Psychological horror is a unique category because it does not rely on outside forces to create tension and fear; instead terror is derived from the mind. Psychological fear can be created with discomfort by exposing common psychological and emotionalRead MoreDescriptive Essay - Original Writing1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesyour fate. Fear, anxiety, intrigue, curiosity, among other feelings and thoughts, may have been brought up by that short story. Emotions such as these are dug up by way of the horror genre Ã¢â¬â a genre that is intended to, or has the capacity to Ã¢â¬Å"frighten, scare, disgust, or startleÃ¢â¬ their audience by inducing feelings of horror and terror. What is written above is the opening scene of the horror genre video game Until Dawn. Many players have picked up this game and played through this fear inducingRead MoreComparing 3 Short Films1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesExplore how Stalker-Lewis Farinella(2008), Lovefield-Matthieu Ratthe(2008) and Vanished-NewDawnFilm(2010) conform and deviate from horror genre conventions. The aim of this research investigation into genre is to gain an understanding in the way that horror films are constructed and created to effectively represent the genre to its audience. This will expand my understanding of how technical, audio codes, setting and characterization are frequently used in constructing a piece of media textRead MoreWhy We Crave Horror Movies Response1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMWF 11:10-12:00 PM 20 January, 2016 Why We Crave Horror Movies Response In Stephen KingÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Why We Crave Horror Movies,Ã¢â¬ the author exemplifies a present-day approach to thinking about the genre of horror. King offers three explanations for why people go to see horror films: to psychologically relieve ourselves, to exercise our fears, and to establish our feelings of essential normality. He claims that watching horror films is not just a trend, but a necessity to fulfill our needRead MoreStephen King Crave Horror Essay777 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdelight in watching horror movies? What makes them so interesting? Why does the general society enjoy entertaining themselves with the horror genre? Well, Stephen King might have the answer to that. Mr. King strongly agrees with the idea that we might all have a little craving for watching such morbid scenes or reading about them, and creating our own gruesome scenario. Stephen King believes that humans crave horror for the purpose of facing our fears, to reestablish our feelings of normal ity, andRead MoreEssay about Stephen King and Horror Films982 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages As the main topic suggests, what are the types of horrors associated with media? First off, you might want to think about what your definition of fear is, what unsettles you, and what rubs you the wrong way. Well according to Stephen King, this can be broken down into three types; which is the gross-out, horror, and terror. The gross-out in this case is what it is. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s things we as humans find disgusting, morbid, or diseased. To provide an example; picture yourself waking up in your bed, all seems
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(411) " more than one mode is mostly profitable to organisation \(Murphy and Farris, 1993\) but depended on type of freight and relative distance but is it that simple in present world\? Multimodal/ Intermodal Transportation System Multimodal and intermodal being the two words used in literature with synonymous meaning of: Ã¢â¬Ëusage of one or more than one mode of transportÃ¢â¬â¢ innocently interoperated occasionally\." UNIVERSITY OF GLAMORGAN BUSSINESS SCHOOL| Globalization of Logistics and Supply Chain: Selection Of Global Supplier Over Local Impacts On Sustainability of Supply Chain| Key words : Sustainable Supply Chain, Multi- modal/Intra-modal Transport, Transport modes, Logistics, Operations, Sustainability, Triple bottom line| | Aqeel Iqbal| 15-Apr-13| This paper is conceptualizing on combination of transport modes organisation use to maintain sustainability in their supply chain by keeping the carbon foot print to minimum, this paper utilizes desk research to evaluate the impact of this approach on the organisations who prefer global suppliers over local evaluating the trade-offs these organisations need to make in order to maintain an equilibrium of sustainability in their supply chain concluding on the fact that dependent on an organisational willingness to be environmentally sustainable future most practices donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a choice of cost over environment but some need sacrifice of at least one to maintain sustainability. | Introduction This research paper is aimed to critically evaluate and answer the research question of: how selection of global over local suppliers affects organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainable supply chain strategy while considering the impact of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëmulti-modalÃ¢â¬â¢/Ã¢â¬ËintramodalÃ¢â¬â¢ ch oiceÃ¢â¬â¢ and what trade-offs does these organisations need do in order to achieve this? To answer this research question it is essential to address two wide areas in business literature, gaining an understand of what these areas actually mean to an organisational operational strategy: first being identification of different intramodal/multimodal transport choice used in local and global supply chains; whereas the second to critically evaluate why priority is given by different organisations to select global suppliers over local, while achieving reasoning from prospective of different Industries and organisations within those industries for the trades-off they are willing to do in order to implement selected means in to practice, while maintaining the sustainability of their supply chain. This paper divided into four nterlinked parts will use desk search to grasp understanding on wide topics of present transportation modes, multi-modal/intramodal transportation system, and sustainability of supply chain (focusing on logistics and operation function) and Impacts of select ing global supply chain; dividing each part by sub-research questions asked to the reader at end of each part; While concluding the paper on the notion that selection of the mode depends on trade-offs an organisations is willing to make between being ecological sustainable to cost and service. We will write a custom essay sample on Multi-Modal Transport System Effects on Selection of Global Supply or any similar topic only for you Order Now Transportation modes at present In the past decades the transportation system has been regarded as a separate function and an additional cost to the organisations supply chain (Huge-Brodin, 2013); which has also often been likened with the objective of cost minimisation rather than a value adding factor (Cunningham, 1982). However, this long-established concept has been critiqued to be a value added activity in the supply chain from literature of twenty first century (E. Bo and Hammervoll, 2010; Freight best practice, 2013; Huge-Brodin, 2013) based on the emerging demand for advanced logistics services and the globalization trends, demand in cutting of lead period, short product life cycles, and increased technology use and outsourcing trends (Anthony D. Ross, 2012). This notion has lead organisations consider flexible and effective freight flow which can match and fulfil organisation needs dependent on their market and environment (Cunningham, 1982; Murphy and Farris, 1993; Huge-Brodin, 2013). In order to understand how to use the right transportation mode freight movement it is eminent to know different transportation methods used by organisations at present and critically evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each of them (see Appendix A B). (Appendix AB) does not show one of the major transport mode pipeline mainly because of its use in movement of specific kind of freight like oil and gas thus not firmly a modal choice it has a high initial cost of setup but is full reliable cost effective and environment friendly (CEFIC, 2011; Freight best practice, 2013). There are four major categories of freight transport used presently: inland water and sea, air, pipeline, and land. Whereas most literatures in the past categorised land into sub modes in order to evaluate the effectiveness of them as Road and Rail (Murphy and Farris, 1993; Freight best practice, 2013); thus for the purpose of this paper five inclusive the sub categories will be used. Maria Feo-Valero and her colleagues (Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011) in a review to bibliography has highlighted Freight Value Of Time (FVOT) as a scale for the methods of transport mode selection; based on the rate of substitution between travel cost and time called value of time (VOT) as different modes vary majorly in consciences of amount they carry in given time and the cost to the organisation (Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011) . As different organisations in the same industries have different priories of transport mainly dependent on their locations, sustainability, market share, quantity, size and weight of inventories (Carter and Rogers, 2008; Meixell and Mario, 2008) as an example retail industry consists a combination of deep-sea mode which commute inventories internationally (may contain inventories for various competitors within the same region in a container (Fawcett and Mangan, 2002; Pettit, Liu and Beresford, 2011)) then through either rail or road depended on inventory size, weight, type and location of main warehouse and sustainable practice of the organisation is selected from which may be distributed via road transport either to depot or directly to the retail store (Wu and Dunn, 1995; Huge-Brodin, 2013). The FVOT value has been an important addition to the logistics planning following the concept of cost reduction with less recognition over time but similar frameworks illustrate results which h ave been used to optimize time and cost of transportation of freight (Murphy and Farris, 1993; Carter and Rogers, 2008). Which lead managers and academics to a conclusion that combination of more than one mode is mostly profitable to organisation (Murphy and Farris, 1993) but depended on type of freight and relative distance but is it that simple in present world? Multimodal/ Intermodal Transportation System Multimodal and intermodal being the two words used in literature with synonymous meaning of: Ã¢â¬Ëusage of one or more than one mode of transportÃ¢â¬â¢ innocently interoperated occasionally. You read "Multi-Modal Transport System Effects on Selection of Global Supply" in category "Papers" Thus it is important to address this for the purpose of this paper: intra-model transport with only one significant difference to multimodal is that the freight being transported are not handled on every occasion when the mode of transport is changed (Freight best practice, 2013) in opposition to multi-modal where freight are andled each time for example in case of container caring automobile that arrive at de ep sea port is opened and cars remove from the container are loaded on a auto-transport trailer to carry by the trailer to showroom (Worthington and Britton, 2006). For the purpose of this paper multi-modal will be used to demonstrate more than one of transport. Multi-modal transportations have answered to the cost reduction of the orthodox literature on reduction of cost and time freight transport: as discussed earlier in the retail example for the ship carrying inventories of different competitors in a shared container reducing cost by sharing of container, and dependent on the agile approach of any of these competitor time frame of getting inventors from deep sea port to stores can be reduced by using road mode rather than rail (Logistcs Cluster, 2011). As the field of transportation evolved Ã¢â¬Å"Deregulation of the rail and trucking industries, implementation of innovative manufacturing strategies such as Just in Time (JIT),increased emphasis on quality managementÃ¢â¬ (Meixell and Mario, 2008) and stakeholder (R. E. Freeman, 1984) consideration have all contributed to cause complexity in transportation selection (Murphy and Farris, 1993) developing the traditional view of just selecting the mode and type of carrier (Meixell and Mario, 2008). In present time logistics/operation manages are bound to understand the Industries challenges faced by the organisation as explained by (Meixell and Mario, 2008) in their paper comparing Ã¢â¬Å"Transportation capacity shortage, and International growth, Economies of scale and scope, Security concerns, Environmental and energy usedÃ¢â¬ . As research carried by (Pettit, Liu and Beresford, 2011) on the extraction and transportation of iron ore from Australia to China utilizing multimodal transportation relied on more convectional mode of transport Deeps Sea for country to country transportation but other than that saw were some limitations imposed on multimodal transport options for bulk cargoes. As Iron ore flows are typically as Ã¢â¬Å"high volume Ã¢â¬â high weight Ã¢â¬â low value and transhipment is time consuming, energy intensive and expensiveÃ¢â¬ thus minimising the modes of transportation and limiting Ã¢â¬Å"large number of transhipment pointsÃ¢â¬ . As the research question point out need to investigate the sustainable options to transport the next parts of the essay will achieve an understanding: Is global multi-modal transportation a sustainable option for an organisations supply chain and what trade-offs are organisations willing to make in order to implement this modal in their supply chain? In order to answer this it is critical to first grasp an understanding of what sustainable supply chain means to an organisation? Sustainability of Supply Chain Shareholder theory stating the organisations primary focus being increasing shareholders wealth (Friedman, 1970) has overly been critiqued by the stakeholder theory over the topic of ill consideration of environmental and social sustainability (R. E. Freeman, 1984; Jensen, 2002; Murphy, 2012). Sustainability as defined by (Worthington and Britton, 2006: 510) Ã¢â¬Å"An approach to economic growth and development which takes account of the social and environmental consequencesÃ¢â¬ also referred to as the triple bottom line approach (Elkington, 1994; Carter and Rogers, 2008; Seuring and Muller, 2008). Supply chains by definition necessitate organisations to work collectively with the purpose of adding value to the customer by physical movement of goods. In present world combination of different supply chains have come together to form a supply web (Poter. M. E, 1985,1996; Handfield and Nichols, 2002). As the research question only relates with the impact of the multi-modal choice impact on the supply chain thus functions supporting function from PoterÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain model are side lined and emphases is given on the inbound/outbound logistics and operations (Poter. M. E, 1985,1996) value chain model (explaining supply chain as a combination of value adding activates within an organisational structure). Inbound/Outbound logistics being one of the most important function of the supply chain (Carter and Rogers, 2008) has been linked to sustainability because of inclusion of one the most costly and environmentally harmful sub-function (transport function) in it (Huge-Brodin, 2013) as according to (CEFIC, 2011) report Transport including freight accounts for 20% of all EUÃ¢â¬â¢s green house gas emissions which was projected to raise to 30% by 2020 if precautions are not taken. Sustainability a wide topic in itself has been of great interest to all the stakeholders in present time especially to customers, governments and non-Governmental organisations (NGOs); Pressurising organisations to operate in environmental and social friendly manner and demanding transparency from organisation supply chains (Carter and Rogers, 2008; CEFIC, 2011; Freight best practice, 2013). This transparency majorly driven y corporate reporting, Ã¢â¬Å"Interoperable software and globalization of supply chainsÃ¢ â¬ making it hard and risky for an organisation to do corporate unethical activities (Carter and Rogers, 2008)as: in case logistics external stakeholders are mainly interested in the economical and the environmental impact on sustainability for example raised awareness in sustainability of environment presently as consumers looking at carbon foot print (total amount of carbon emission done in to getting the product to the end user (Freight best practice, 2013))before purchase of a product (Anthony D. Ross, 2012); Carbon footprint is one of most important variable, while calculating environmental sustainability (Anthony D. Ross, 2012; Carter and Rogers, 2008; Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011). As all three Economical, social and Environmental impacts are considered while making a mode selection, (Carter and Rogers, 2008) drew a wider picture of implications in the their version of triple bottom line(3BL) (see Appendix C)by including the risk management, organisational culture, transparency and organisational strategy as the factors basing the triple bottom line of an organisation. Whereas placing a question mark at being good which relates the social and environmental factors of 3BL following the viewpoint of some scholars like (Walley and Whitehead, 1994) stating Ã¢â¬Å"environmental and social initiatives are costly undertakingsÃ¢â¬ (Carter and Rogers, 2008). In contrast to statement by (Walley and Whitehead, 1994) some logistics and operations functions fall in the category of being sustainable in all forms as resulted in a study done in 1980 on 45 firms in Denmark; results found suggested 20 out of 45 to be cost saving options (Dielman and de Hoo, 1993) for example: efficient routing of transport, reducing packaging, improving operational order in warehouses and having fuel efficient transportation, (Carter and Rogers, 2008) and reverse logistics for some Industries as the fabricated metal products industry and electric/electronic products industry used as topic of research by (Talbot, Lefebvre and Lefebvre, 2007). According to (Wagner, 2005) In practice, organisation try hard to achieve a win-win situation when considering the economic and the environmental aspect; but when it comes to trade-offs based on the analysis of all there dimension (Seuring and Muller, 2008) have rated the economic dimension of being the most important from the view of the organisation explaining the notion that Ã¢â¬Å"without economic success, there would be no supply chainsÃ¢â¬ whereas trade-offs between environmental and social dimension dictions have not been clear (Wagner, 2005). This now leads to the question of: Are global multi-modal sustainable and what trade-offs does an organisation need to make while selecting them? Global Supply chain Impacts and Trade-offs Following the challenges faced by the organisations highlighted earlier in the paper by (Meixell and Mario, 2008). As different Industries operate in different ways and organisations within those industries may also differ in operation and strategy example form the fashion retail industry being: Zara fashions, number one fashion retailer of the world benefited with highly agile supply chain function; highly integrated communication and inventory management system (Euromonitor International , 2011) . Where as in comparison its nearest competitor GAP utilizing a more leaner approach to reduce the uncertainty; both organisations being global brands but with different operational strategies and possessing their own comparative advantage within fashion industry. As both these companies source some of their products from global suppliers but because of difference in organisational strategies and core competency rely on different sources as Zara with its most of its operations and headquarters in Spain use more European to aid its agile approach with tradeoffs cost to small batches of inventory levels at each store every fourth week (Euromonitor International , 2011; Paloma Diaz Soloaga and Mercedes Monjo, 2010) making Zara environmentally and economical less sustainable to GAP but Zara make that up with local most manufacturing locally in Spain (Euromonitor International , 2011). As the research question converse the notion of impacts of selecting a global supplier over local supplier it is important to address the reasons for selecting one? As some nations are more comparative than other nations as explained by (Porter, 1990) possessing a unique quality that attracts organisations to select global supply chains rather than local mostly looki ng for economic sustainability (Yip, 1989; Elkington, 1994; Seuring and Muller, 2008). Organisations deciding to select a global supplier than a local supplier decreases environmental sustainable supply chain but mostly has an opposite impact on economically. Successful businesses respond to both internal and external changes and amend their strategist in the same manner. In order to ain supplies globally even with increased pressure from customer demands of being Ã¢â¬ËgreenÃ¢â¬â¢ and highly imposed governmental regulations in most regions around the globe organisation in turn making diction hard for logistics managers to do certain trade-offs to maintain sustainability on Ã¢â¬Ëcost, quality and serviceÃ¢â¬â¢, while limiting dangerous emissions to atmosphere (IBM, 2008). Managers devising an operational strategy of an organisation analyse cost and profit in perspective of corporate goals and objectives. The main Trade-offs linked to each part of sustainable supply chain as in acquisition of raw materials sourced by inbound logistics, involves purchasing purchase of Ã¢â¬ËgreenÃ¢â¬â¢ raw material may be costly to normal material leaving a trade-off to buy form low cost supplier or environmentally friendly. Organisation indoor to stay sustainable only trade from suppliers that are certified to International Organization of Standardization standards (ISO) has lead organisations dealing in third world countries with less awareness of ISO regulations to find alternative sources of suppliers (Wu and Dunn, 1995; Anthony D. Ross, 2012). The selection of the vendor will also influence the transpiration mode of selection as for example in third world countries there is lack of infrastructure of trains is not of high speed and precise in timing as in European countries which causes delays, unpredictability and also be unsustainable by possessing extra cost and additional CO2 emissionsÃ¢â¬â¢; where as some donÃ¢â¬â¢t have facility of using road rail combination at all, in both cases trucks to transport goods from remote locations of railway station or deep seaports may increase the Carbon foot print more than of that of a normal raw marital bought from a local supplier (Wu and Dunn, 1995). Smart Packaging is another part of logistics in which organisation can do trade-off to stay environmentally sustainable as global supplies use containers to send bulk of goods packed together reducing packaging and material handling costs; another way is being minimizing protection packaging can improve space utilization and reduce handling costs (Sony Global, 2012) at each point of transportation reducing carbon footprint. Lean approach within the supply chain makes it environmentally sustainable but adds usage of ware housing costs with storage of goods in oppositions to widely uses JIT approach (smaller regular shipments) (IBM, 2008) as warehousing occupies excess and and generation of excess packaging waste hat can be reduced by using a local supplier as organisations trade-off of selecting a leaner approach while selecting a global supplier being risk of excess inventories stuck with in the warehouse with an unpredictable customer demand (Wu and Dunn, 1995) as demonstrated by Ap pendix D demonstrating an example of relationship of all variables of trade-off while comparing operational strategies with shipment consolidation used by IBM (IBM, 2008) to explain effects on environment. Reverse logistics have solved this problem of excess cost of packing and return items by the customers to be sent upstream to supplier using standardized renewable packing (Walley and Whitehead, 1994; Wu and Dunn, 1995; Anthony D. Ross, 2012)but when considering a global supplier it will be addition cost of transportation to the organisation using reverse logistics resulting in excess waste creation an unsustainable option (Talbot, Lefebvre and Lefebvre, 2007; Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011). Information and communications (ICT) can also played an important role in sustainable global supply chain substituting Information with inventory levels (Wu and Dunn, 1995) devising the right routs and knowing the exact times inventory arrivals, conciliation of shipments and optimising waste by minimizing large number of suppliers to just few, maximizing truckload in forward and backward supply chain over all removing uncertainty of supply chain (Mason, Lalwani and Boughton, 2007) the tradeoffs of the initial cost of implementing the ICT systems in organisation to long term sustainable benefits (IBM, 2008; Feo-valero, Menendez and hidalgo, 2011; Sony Global B, 2012). Dependent on the trade-off an organisation is willing to make over cost, service or environment organisations can select a sustainable multimodal method of transport(see Appendix E ) as trade-offs may vary according to selection of a local supplier. Conclusion This paper was aimed to answer question of how selection of global suppliers affects organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s sustainable supply chain strategy in light of multi-modal choice while considering the impact and what trade-offs does these organisations need do in order to achieve a sustainable supply chain? It is best to conclude this paper at notion of Industries and organisations vary in the need of supply chains dependent on the variants discussed in the paper; taken as a whole, these factors explained by (Carter and Rogers, 008; Meixell and Mario, 2008) play a very important role in selection of mode transport and over all operation strategy and an organisation should assess the trade-offs based on these factors. Whereas overall t he decision of using or changing the multi-modal used depends on an organisational willingness to be environmentally sustainable future most of the changes are both cost and eco friendly whereas some require to long protesting one on other. 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CEFIC (2011) Guidelines for Measuring and Managing CO2 Emission from Freight Transport Operations, March, [Online], Available: http://w ww. cefic. org/Documents/IndustrySupport/Transport-and-Logistics/Best%20Practice%20Guidelines%20-%20General%20Guidelines/Cefic-ECTA%20Guidelines%20for%20measuring%20and%20managing%20CO2%20emissions%20from%20transport%20operations%20Final%2030. 03. 201 [1 April 2013]. Cunningham, W. H. J. 1982) Ã¢â¬ËFreight Modal Choice and Competition in Transportation: A Critique and Categorization of Analysis TechniquesÃ¢â¬â¢, TRANSPORTATION JOURNAL (American Society of Transportation Logistics Inc), vol. 21, no. 4, Summer, pp. 66-75. Dielman, H. and de Hoo, S.. (1993) Ã¢â¬ËToward a tailor-made process of pollution prevention and cleaner production: results and implications of the PRISMA projectÃ¢â¬ , in Fisher, K. andSchott, J. ,Ã¢â¬â¢, Environmental Strategies for Industry Island Press, Washington, DC, no. 2, pp. 45-75. E. Bo and Hammervoll, T. (2010) Ã¢â¬ËCost-based pricing of transportation services in a wholesaler-carrier relationship: an MS Excel spreadsheet decision toolÃ¢â¬â ¢, International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, vol. 13. , no. 3, pp. 197-210. Elkington, J. (1994) Ã¢â¬Ë Towards the sustainable corporation: Win-win-win business strategies for sustainable developmentÃ¢â¬â¢, California Management Review , vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 90-100. Euromonitor International (2011) FOCUS: Zara grows in Brazil while Gap and HM dither, 7 october, [Online], Available: http://www. just-style. com/analysis/zara-grows-in-brazil-while-gap-and-hm-dither_id112354. aspx [12 February 2013]. Fawcett, S. E. and Mangan, G. M. (2002) Ã¢â¬ËThe rhetoric and reality of supply chain integrationÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Physical Distribution Logistics Management, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 39-61. Feo-valero, M. , Menendez, l. G. nd hidalgo, R. G. (2011) Ã¢â¬ËValuing Freight Transport Time using Transport Demand Modelling: A Bibliographical ReviewÃ¢â¬â¢, Transport Reviews, vol. 31, no. 5, September, p. 625Ã¢â¬â651. Freight best practice, (2013) Choosing and Developing a Multi-modal Transport Solution, [Online], Available: freightbestpractice. org. uk/categories/3589_586_dulliau-amlfoddolÃ¢â¬âmulti-modal-. aspx [1 March 2013]. Friedman, M. (1970) Ã¢â¬ËThe Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase ProfitsÃ¢â¬â¢, New York Times Magazine, vol. 13, no. 32. Gerry Johnson, K. S. W. (2008) Exploring Corporate Strategy, 8th edition, London: Pearson Education. Handfield, R. B. and Nichols, J.. E. L. 2002) Supply Chain Redesign: Transforming Supply Chains into Integrated Value systems, 1st edition, United States of America: FT Press. Huge-Brodin, K. I. a. M. (2013) Ã¢â¬ËUnderstanding efficiencies behind logistics service providersÃ¢â¬â¢ green offeringsÃ¢â¬â¢, Management Research Review, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 216-238. IBM (2008) Mastering carbon management:Balancing trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies, [Online], Available: -05. ibm. com/de/automotive/downloads/mastering-carbon-management. pdf [1 April 2013]. Ilan Oshri, J. K. W. R. L. W. (2009) Ã¢â¬ËGlobal sourcing: recent trends and issuesÃ¢â¬â¢, Info rmation Technology People, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 192-200. Jensen, M. C. 2002) Ã¢â¬ËValue Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective FunctionÃ¢â¬â¢, Business Ethics Quarterly , vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 235-56. Logistcs Cluster (2011) Logistics Operational Guide, May, [Online], Available: http://log. logcluster. org/response/transport/ [2 March 2013]. Mason, R. , Lalwani, C. and Boughton, R. (2007) Ã¢â¬ËCombining vertical and horizontal collaboration for transport optimisationÃ¢â¬â¢, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 187Ã¢â¬â199. Meixell, J. M. and Mario, N. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËA review of the transportation mode choice and carrier selection literatureÃ¢â¬â¢, The International Journal of Logistics, vol. How to cite Multi-Modal Transport System Effects on Selection of Global Supply, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question 1: List and identify the relationships between different functions/processes and explain the different functions and processes.List the key aims, objectives and mission of ABC Company and draw a process map for any one of the functions.Evaluate the elements required to build a quality gateway, which focuses on the output of the process Answer 1: Introduction Through this report, significance of various business processes will be discussed that are mainly used for the purpose of delivering the results and the goals of ABC Company, which is a recruitment company (Mullins 2007). The report will also help in understanding how the relevance system tries to ensure about the quality of either product or service of the company and how the same could impact the organization. The report discusses about the managers working at ABC Company who has blamed the company for deficits.The managers have blamed the poor management, inadequate leadership, as well as ineffective management of the company for this deficit (Mullins 2007). These issues have leaded to decrease in job, delayed the operations and close the services. These issues are crucial as financial failure often reflect on the failure of the company (Mullins 2007). Therefore, by considering the present scenario of the company, certain suggestions has to be made for advising over the changes to be made in the company, so that overall performance of the company could be improved (Mullins 2007). The size of the company might impact the external environment along with ability to respond towards it (Mullins 2007). Small businesses having the limited resources mainly the finance and the management are unable to actually scan the environment and negatively react towards the changes in the environment (Mullins 2007). Basically, there are small businesses that try to thrive towards the slow economy. The organizational structure of ABC Company includes the design group staff through their products and functions (Mullins 2007). This structure is helpful in dealing with the recruitment procedure and work in different areas, like people working in teams or projects (Mullins 2007). The entire business process of ABC Company is the ideal process for doing business, as they have deployed the new technologies in the business like ERP and SAP softwares that has helped them in keeping 360 degree view of the recruited staff, the reason for including these softwares is that the company has ga ined the experience of having the cross functioning (Mullins 2007).If the company wants to conduct the new recruitment process, it gives the ads and selects the candidates according to qualification and work experience (Mullins 2007). The shortlisted candidates are called for the interview and are selected on the basis of it. The key factor for ABC Company requires looking over to the communication. Increase in the level of communication can result into analyzing the coordination among the productivity level of the company (Mullins 2007). The company also gives constant training and organizes activities in the company. The cross functional activities of the company help the company in achieving the process quality, orientation growth, and employees satisfaction (Mullins 2007).ABC Company is devoted towards developing the human potential. The mission of the company is to creative innovative solutions for the people and informs them about the choices in order to improve their lives (M iller 2004). The company motivates and encourages the employees to achieve their both professional as well as personal fulfillment (Miller 2004). The process mapping is referred as the visual aid that supports in understanding the work process of ABC Company. The business success lies over the communication ability about the core functions along with important activities of the business (Miller 2004). Process mapping is referred as a technique, in which business process is actually converted into the visual diagram. The above diagram depicts the ABC Company core process along with important activities, in which it is depicted that there core process aim is to achieve the main activities, in order to fulfill the objectives of the business (Miller 2004). ABC Company has tried to achieve every factor in their mission statement since the starting of the company. The company has tried to maintain their quality of services (Miller 2004). The company has introduced different forms in their recruitment procedure along with imparting training services. The new objectives introduced by the ABC Company tries to fulfill the criteria of the SMART objectives, which includes, specific, measurable, achievable, Time bound as well as result oriented (Miller 2004). The results of the business process rely over the goals as well as factors of attaining critical success. There are certain measures of the business process that are followed by the company (Miller 2004).The company makes use of SAP and ERP softwares in order to properly handle the customers and employees data through having the greatest visibility along with predicated outcomes of the employees that are drawn (Miller 2004). The companies try to enable towards focusing on imparting unique approach towards the recruitment process. The companys main focus is on talent of the middle as well as senior management requirements. The company tries to recruit all across different segments of the industry for the multinational companies along with other leading business houses (Miller 2004). The ABC Company also tries to deliver their services according to the set timescale. Question 2: Design a plan to promote goals and objectives for ABC Company to ensure plans are consistent with legal, regulatory and ethical requirements.Write, using SMART objectives, your recommendations relating to the alignment of people and other resources, in an effective and efficient way.Implement appropriate systems to achieve objectives in the most efficient way, on time, to budget and meeting organizational standards of quality.Carry out work activities meeting the operational plan through effective monitoring and control. Answer 2: Planning for the company requires one to develop the clear objectives that are actually reliable in undertaking the functions of the business (David and Fischer 1983). In the case of ABC Company, they consider that the planning is actually a critical process in ensuring as well as exploring the costs and changes in the advance along with keeping everything under the control (David and Fischer 1983). As per the ABC Company they try to make the plan at various levels. In every organizational level, the core functions of the company tries to drive the individual in order to achieve the objectives and every activity cover up the deployment resources that could try to convert the day to day performance through the behavior quality as well as policy performance (David and Fischer 1983). The ABC Company undertakes the SMART objectives as it help them in enhancing their process of recruitment process and imparting other HR activities. The David and Fischer (1983) consider the SMART objectives while evaluating the ABC Company employees relationship management. Employees relationship management is the important process, as it supports in adding value to the company and it also supports in enhancing the business in a quite efficient as well as effective manner (David and Fischer 1983). It is noted that ABC Company has understood the companys long term growth that relies over their ability to make tie up with the employees. There is a link with the customers needs and employees ability to fulfill those needs (David and Fischer 1983).ABC Company has tried to implement the move through improving the recruitment activities and implemented the ERP process in the company (David and Fischer 1983). But actually, there is a high time for the company to understand and look towards the future of the companys competitors in order to gain the competitive advantage for starting the activities of the company (David and Fischer 1983). The company also tries to build the campaign management, which is quite a demanded process of the company, as through this process the company tries to retrieve the employees profile in order to customize as well as develop the campaign management cycle by making use of the cutting edge in the present scenario and in enhancing the intelligence of employees (David and Fischer 1983). In order to implement the relevant systems for fulfilling the objectives in the effective manner within the time as well as budget in fulfilling the companys standard quality, therefore, the company makes use of project management tool for implementing these standards (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). A project is considered as the different endeavor in order to produce the deliverables in the set time as well as constraints of quality. Its noted that projects are often differentiating that it becomes challenging to define it (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). A project is defined as the unique venture that includes both starting and ending, which is mainly conducted through the people in order to meet the set up goals along with the parameters of both quality and schedule of cost (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986).The Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar (1986) has also selected the work break structure in the company through adopting different methods like, Gantt Chart, ERP process, tools for ri sk management, along with Critical Path analysis in order to implement the systems for fulfilling the objectives in effective way and as per the quality standards of the company (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). It is noted that work breakdown structure of the company supports in conducting the employees relationship process of SAP in the company that supports in understanding all the process as well as task (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). The operations plan of ABC Company includes, Organizational constraints, development of products, value added chain, as well as meeting objectives (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). ABC Company undertakes the two steps for developing the new services like design as well as development and other one is setting up the specifications. The mechanism of ABC Company includes the services of training and development (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). In this process the company tries to first estimate the ways to increase the sales if the new services are designed that could appeal the employees. After undertaking the market research through the help of research and development department of the ABC Company establish the product specifications (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). ABC company value added chain includes the process through which they try to collect the employees data, and try to recruit the candidate after specific procedure (Arthur, Ellis and Hillmar 1986). Question 3: Explain the systems required to manage and monitor quality standards of ABC Company.Demonstrate a quality culture to ensure continuous monitoring, evaluation and development of the processRecommend improvements which align with the organizations objectives and goals and which results in improvements. Highlight the elements of your plan which are going to bring continuous improvement in the system.Write a brief report on the wider implications of proposed changes within the organization. Answer 3: In the present world, the quality is considered as the significant factor for determining the position of the company in order to stay in the competitive market (Buchanan and Baddy 1982). The products of high quality have leads towards the goodwill and satisfaction of the customers, through conducting the repetitive sales and making loyal customers (Buchanan and Baddy 1982). The system adopted for monitoring as well as managing the standards of quality specified by the ABC Company are allotted through the top management in all the operations of the company, which includes: The Company should offer the services in order to meet the standards within time frame (Buchanan and Baddy 1982). It should lead towards improving the entire process for the purpose of understanding the needs of the changing customers as well as their preferences and inputs for the purpose of reviewing and establishing the performance standards of the services (Buchanan and Baddy 1982). Management of the quality at ABC Company is not just a process for the company, rather its considered as the continuous process assessment (Basu 2004). As its stated earlier, the total quality management concept adopted by ABC Company is considered as philosophy for managing the company for fulfilling the requirements of stakeholders along with their expectations (Basu 2004). Its not easy to achieve the total quality management along with the culture of an organization, such as language or subculture in the entire system of the company that impose the challenges; therefore, ABC company priority is based on the changing culture of the company that could increase quality standards and ensure about the process development and continuous monitoring of entire process (Basu 2004). It is recommended that ABC Company should adopt the six sigma theory in order to enhance the process output quality (Burke 2007). It tries to instigate towards fulfilling the set objectives, along with improvement in process and measuring the performance. It includes all the business process that makes the company work at the zero defects (Burke 2007). ABC Company adopts the quality improvement tools and tries to align with recruitment aims of the company. Quality improvement process is included in order to enhance the productivity and efficiency in fulfilling the needs of the clients (Burke 2007). It is noted that ABC Company tries to opt for the tools of six sigma in the process of quality improvement, as it supports the company in minimizing its effects of recruitment process, and also help in improving the profitability of the business, along with improving the efficiency and productivity of every operations in order to fulfill the requirements and expectations of the clients (Stoling 2008). The core functions of the six sigma process in ABC Company are enhancing the employees retention and improve the business services (Stoling 2008). All the above factors can leave the wide implications in the company over the changed process. It is recommended to ABC Company to implement the tool of Six Sigma through investing the huge capital in adopting the ERP software to be installed in the company (Stoling 2008). Question 4: Advice on how to carry out risk assessments as required by legislation, regulation and organizational requirements ensuring appropriate action is taken.Demonstrate the correct and effective application of the health and safety regulations and legislation applicable in ABC Company.Carry out a systematic review of organizationalhealth and safety policies and procedures in order to ensure they are effective and compliant.Advise on how to carry out the practical application of health and safety policies and procedures ABC Company. Answer 4: The legislation of health and safety legislation can be included in the ABC Company, as it can help in organizing the efforts and procedures for exploring the hazards at the workplace and also supports in minimizing the accidents that could be caused through harmful situations (Cardoso 2005). It cover up personnel training in preventing the accidents, response at the time of accidents, preparedness of any type of emergency and using the equipments during risk (Cardoso 2005). Therefore, its the duty of the training manager to impart training to staff for getting prepared during risky situations. A risk assessment process is important at ABC Company, so that they could train employees according to the set legislation by the government (Cardoso 2005). It is noted that laws often dont expect from every company to practice it, but its important they should ensure about the employees safety along with safety of the society (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). The legislation of health and safety as per the 1948 Factories Act, workers welfare should be ensured in the company. ABC Company imparts training that relates according to industry, under which the companies operate their laws (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). For the purpose of carrying out the organizations review about the policies of health and safety and its entire procedure, ABC Company tries to draw the policies that follow the same in the company (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). It is believed by ABC Company to accept the changes and try to forge towards all these changes in the company. Through evaluating the effectiveness of health and safety legislation, it is expected that ABC company to clearly understand all the efficiencies as well as complaints related to it for the purpose of practicing the regulations of health and safety in the company (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). The company also discuss about the crucial points that could bring improvement in the company. The ABC Company presents their views on the ABC company along with the points based on the practical applications related to the policies of health and safety, for example, laws related to health and safety falls along with the health and safety policies practical application at the workplaces through hiring the housekeeping service people who could come at the time of production (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). The company should also try to ensure about the hiring those employees who are trained in reducing the hazards. For example, for the paint company, spill of the paint could be risky situation as it can harm the employees; if the employees are trained they could take help of housekeeping machine for keeping the floor clean and minimizes the chances of accidents (Becker, Rosemann and von Uthmann 2000). Conclusion ABC Company operates its recruitment business in many countries and tries to impart quality services to their clients. The report has tried to discuss about the interrelationship among the various processes of the ABC Company in order to meet their goals and objectives. The report also discusses about the various areas of the companies responsibilities and how the company should plan its operations, so that it could be improved. On the other side, the report has also discussed about the ABC Company and how to actually monitor the relevant quality systems for the purpose of enhancing the performance of the company. Finally, it also discusses the ways of managing the health and safety in the companies. References Arthur, C., Ellis, E. and Hillmar, D. 1986. Positive Management Practices: Bringing out the best in organisation and people. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Basu, R. 2004. Implementing quality. Cengage learning EMEA Becker, J., Rosemann, M. and von Uthmann, C. 2000. Guidelines of Business Process Modeling, in Business Process Management. Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer. Buchanan and Baddy. 1982. Fundamentals of project management (1st edition). New York: SAGE. Burke. 2007. Introduction to Project Management. Partner Pub Group. Cardoso, J. 2005. Evaluating the Process Control-Flow Complexity Measure. ICWS David, A. and Fischer. 1983. Strategies towards political pressure: A typology of firm responses. Academy of management review. Miller, A., et al. 2004. Strategic management (2nd edition). New York, USA: SAGE Mullins, L.J. 2007. Management and organizational behavior,8th Ed. Pearson education ltd. Stoling, W. 2008. Managing activities to achieve result. 6th ed. England: Wiley.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
0j9j9j0+jÃ ¿0kÃ ¿0 Strategic AlternativesTo discover a marketing opportunity , management must know to identify the alternatives. The best method of developing is which when we match products with markets. They are 4 firms that can explore this optionMarket penetration that is a firm that try to increase market share among existing costumers. For example Pizza Hut that offer promotions, cents-off cupons, discountsMarket Development: Means attracting new costumers to existing products.Mcdonald for example, has opened restaurants in Russia,China and intaly and is eagerly2 expanding inro Eastern European countriesProduct development: Strategy that entails the creation of new products for present markets. For example Mcdonald introduced yogurt parfaits,EntrÃ ©e Salads and Fruits to offer costumers more healthy foodDiversificaction:Is the strategy to increase salesn by introducing new products into new markets. a starting McCafe, McDonald's is offering new products that were not available in traditional Mc Donald's stores. McCafe specializes in serving cafes, which attracts customers that usually don't come to McDonald's to eat fastfood.Schokoladenkuchen von McCafe (Mcdonalds) - 2,25 EU...
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Les Miserable essays Les Miserableses Miserables known in English, as The Terrible is a musical portrayal of the French Revolution. It is a musical tragedy, which served as a major powerhouse competitor for Andrew Lloyd Weber musicals in the early eighties and nineties. When first debuting on Broadway in 1987 it traveled a long hard road to compete with musicals of the decade. However, in time many well-known performers were proud to associate themselves with this wonderful work of art. The musical play begins with its lead character named Jean Val jean. Jean Val jean was released on parole after 19 years on the chain gang. In this initial scene the audience can almost immediately feel the tonality of the play with the constant reference to the number 24601. 24601 were the prison number that became Jean Val Jeans identity for 19 years. The dark and dreary ambiance set the tone for the first song of the libretto, Look Down. The lyrics to look down coincide with the chain gang, overseen by brutal wanders , working in the hot sun. It is this series of songs in Act one that take the audience through many turns of feelings and emotions. These emotional songs are used to portray poor men and women working in low class factories, women selling their bodies and more importantly a class of people struggling to scrape by. The most vivid songs used to identify the various themes of poverty and prostitution are Lovely Ladies, A Heart Full of Love, and Master of The House. Moreover, it is a song titled Do You Hear the People Sing? That prepares the audience for the ending of Act one. Most if not all of Act one uses song, tonality, character, pitch and tone to depict the various themes of the play while the story is beginning to unravel. Throughout the second and final act the musical content within the play, acts as a story of its own through theme and variation. Each separate song represents a feeling and or mood and is enhanced as it is...
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Political Science - Essay Example In China, with many people at the government level being strongly influenced by the controlling socialist traditions and forces, it might be difficult for them to accept democratic change. It is thought that the generation currently in the government and main controlling bodies will eventually pass out of power. There is a chance then the controlling bodies will change their way of thinking. However, the people in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s society will not pass on so soon, and it is their views that would certainly count in the development of a democratic state (Brook & Frolic, 1997, 25-28). Though opposing forces among the people are neo-authoritarianism and neo-conservatism, the general mood is pro-democracy. One positive aspect of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s views is that, over the past 15 to 20 years, the youth has largely been in favor of democratization. One example of democratic expression by youth was observed at Tienaman Square. Here, in the early 1990s, students in China assembled to carry out a protest, but were dispersed when the forces came down harshly on them and massacred many. This was certainly a black day for chances of democratizing China (Brook & Frolic, 1997, 25-28). Since this incident was not so long ago, people wonder what the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s mood towards democracy really is. However, since the gruesome incident at Tienaman Square there have been positive changes as well (Ding, 2002, 25-31). One positive change regarding democratizing China is highlighted by ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO). This means that international democratic trade law applies to China like it does to other member countries of the WTO. The manner in which China is protected under trade law like other democratic countries is a positive sign (Bhattasali & Martin, 2004, 22-30). Under the WTO agreement, China now allows countries to introduce their products in China, and importers in China operate with more liberty now. Also, China